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Archerfish's


Cost benefit modelling results

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Archerfish's


Cost benefit modelling results

Cost benefit analysis of social policy outcomes

Decision makers are required to assess the advantages and disadvantages of different policy choices. Sometimes the choices are simple, while others face a range of uncertain costs and outcomes and require rigorous analysis.

Cost benefit analysis (CBA) has long been used to assess investment decisions relating to major capital projects, however pioneering work by the Washington State Institute for Public Policy (WSIPP) has seen it increasingly being applied to evaluating investments in the social policy arena too.

WSIPP has developed a highly respected and rigorous cost-benefit analysis model that has been used to quantify the impact of investments in evidence-based policy interventions across a range of public policy areas.

Archerfish has been working on populating a version of the WSIPP model with Australian criminal justice parameters. The results detailed on this page reflect the current state of this project.

HOW DOES IT WORK?

Applied in this context a CBA can be used to evaluate the costs of public programs relative to the benefits they achieve for taxpayers. By calculating and assigning present value dollar amounts to predicted benefits and comparing them with costs, a CBA can be used to determine if a particular intervention might have a net benefit to society. Undertaking a CBA is a data and resource intense exercise, however the information it generates is far more useful than other simpler techniques. The process that WSIPP developed (and we replicated) is as follows:

1.     What works? – what is the impact of the policy or intervention under consideration?

The first step of the process is to determine the impact of interventions or programs that seek to achieve a policy goal – for example, reduce crime.

The appropriate method here is to complete a systematic review of the published and unpublished literature to identify all of the previous studies that have evaluated programs in the area of interest and undertake a meta-analysis of the results. 

During the systematic review process researchers might opt to screen research that does not meet a minimum methodological standard. WSIPP have followed this approach in their analysis by only including studies with rigorous, credible research designs rejecting the rest. A meta-analysis is then undertaken to produce an estimate of the expected effectiveness of an intervention based on the findings of the most credible research.

2.     What is the economic case?do the monetised benefits outweigh the costs associated with implementing the policy or program?

The second stage involves putting a monetary value on the outcomes that might be improved by any of the interventions sourced from the meta-analysis. Monetary benefits are calculated from four different perspectives:

  • those that benefit participants (e.g. improved labour market outcomes);
  •  those that benefit taxpayers (e.g. from reduced use of public services),
  •  those that benefit others (e.g. spillover benefits from improved human capital outcomes); and
  • those that are indirect (e.g. changes in the deadweight cost of tax).

When added together these benefits provide a state-wide view of the monetised benefits of the investment. The benefits are then compared to the costs of implementing the programs to determine if they represent value for money. This is done by determining the net present value of an investment as per the equation below:

 
netPresentValue
 
  • Q: The amount of change we expect - dependent on effect size & base rate of population of interest
  • P: The price of a particular outcome - dependent on age of participant & outcome and population-specific components
  • C: The marginal cost of providing an intervention
  • D: The discount rate

3.     What are the risks? – What is the likelihood that an investment will break even?

The final step in the process is to assess the level of risk associated with a particular investment decision. To do this, a Monte Carlo simulation is undertaken where key inputs and assumptions used in the modelling process are varied to determine how the results perform under different conditions. The result shows the percentage of times that an investment decision will at least break even.

How doeS this version differ?

There are similarities and differences between our model and the one developed by WSIPP.

The similarities are that we have endeavoured to faithfully replicate the methodology developed by WSIPP to calculate inputs, calculate the benefit cost results and risk assessment.

Additionally we have utilised the meta-analysis results developed by WSIPP. We have opted to do this because – with some notable exceptions – the quality of impact evaluations undertaken in Australia are not methodologically rigorous enough to include in this analysis. Considering that Australia expends a significant amount of money of social welfare expenditure we think it is acceptable to assume that it would be possible for locally implemented programs to achieve results that have been reported in evaluations from the United States, Canada and European Union.

We have estimated the cost of implementing a program or intervention locally by undertaking a purchasing power parity conversion of program costs reported by WSIPP.

The remaining parameters have been derived from NSW or Commonwealth level data. We have calculated and included NSW-level marginal costs of public service delivery, value of a statistical life parameters, discount rates and economic parameters. We have used Australian state and Commonwealth data to calculate the economic returns to incremental educational attainment. We are confident that this has generated a robust approximation of the cost-base of New South Wales.

WHAT DO THE RESULTS MEAN?

The definitions in the table below describe the metrics reported in the results section.

TOTAL COST PER CASE TOTAL BENEFITS NET PRESENT VALUE BENEFIT COST RATIO RETURN ON INVESTMENT CHANCE OF POSITIVE RETURN
The cost of implementing one case of the program or intervention in A$2015 The total monetised benefits in A$2015 that accrue from implementation of one case of this program or invervention The expected value of the investment (marginal benefit-marginal cost) discounted to present value dollars For every dollar invested, the BCR provides the value of realised monetised benefits. The potential returns that accrue from an investment in this intervention or program (the internal rate of return) Percentage of times that an investment in this intervention or program will at least break even

For each program we have provided a headline investment recommendation based upon the following criteria.

NOT RECOMMENDED MORE EVIDENCE REQUIRED RECOMMENDED INVESTMENT
Investment breaks even less than 40 per cent of the time Investment breaks even between > 40 and < 80 per cent of the time Investment breaks even at least 80 per cent of the time

WHAT DID WE FIND?

At this stage the scope of our version of the WSIPP model is limited to interventions in the criminal justice sector, with the headline results shown in the table below. Selecting a program will show additional information.

ADULT CRIMINAL JUSTICE RESULTS

INTERVENTION NAME TOTAL BENEFITS TOTAL COSTS NET PRESENT VALUE BENEFIT COST RATIO CHANCE OF POSITIVE RETURN
Electronic monitoring (radio frequency or global positioning systems) $22493 ($1893) $24385 $11.88 100 per cent
Correctional education (basic or post-secondary) in prison $22539 ($1149) $21390 $19.62 100 per cent
Vocational education in prison $21005 ($2793) $18212 $7.52 100 per cent
Outpatient/non-intensive drug treatment (incarceration) $18210 ($967) $17242 $18.83 100 per cent
Inpatient/intensive outpatient drug treatment (incarceration) $17990 ($1991) $16008 $9.04 100 per cent
Cognitive behavioral treatment (for high and moderate risk offenders) $10051 ($709) $9343 $14.18 99 per cent
Risk Need & Responsivity supervision (for high and moderate risk offenders) $17109 ($8120) $8989 $2.10 99 per cent
Therapeutic communities for offenders with co-occuring disorders $26667 ($5959) $20707 $4.48 98 per cent
Drug Offender Sentencing Alternative (for drug offenders) $22784 ($3183) $19601 $7.16 98 per cent
Mental health courts $18962 ($5732) $13229 $3.31 98 per cent
Employment training/job assistance in the community $5758 ($235) $5523 $24.50 98 per cent
Therapeutic communities for chemically dependent offenders (community) $10687 ($4058) $6629 $2.63 95 per cent
Correctional industries in prison $6545 ($2475) $4070 $2.64 95 per cent
Work release $7312 ($1269) $6044 $5.76 94 per cent
Case management: swift & certain/graduated sanctions for substance abusing offenders $17749 ($8171) $9578 $2.17 90 per cent
Outpatient/non-intensive drug treatment (community) $6131 ($969) $5161 $6.33 90 per cent
Sex Offender treatment in the community $10396 ($2693) $7703 $3.86 82 per cent
Therapeutic communities for chemically dependent offenders (incarceration) $10158 ($7178) $2980 $1.42 82 per cent
Inpatient/intensive outpatient drug treatment (community) $3462 ($1558) $1904 $2.22 73 per cent
Drug Offender Sentencing Alternative (for property offenders)n $11098 ($3178) $7920 $3.49 67 per cent
Sex Offender treatment during incarceration $7494 ($8320) ($826) $0.90 44 per cent
Offender Re-entry Community Safety Program (dangerously mentally ill offenders) $52729 ($56286) ($3557) $0.94 44 per cent
Case management: not swift and certain for substance abusing offenders $3369 ($8178) ($4809) $0.41 24 per cent
Domestic violence perpetrator treatment ($6146) ($2353) ($8449) ($2.61) 17 per cent
Intensive supervision (surveillance & treatment) $10112 ($15660) $(5548) $0.65 16 per cent
Intensive supervision (surveillance only) ($3327) ($8219) ($11546) ($0.40) 1 per cent
Drug Courts $1320 ($18762) ($17441) $0.07 0 per cent

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Archerfish would like the acknowledge the assistance of staff from the Washington State Institute for Public Policy, Pew-MacArthur Results First Initiative and NSW Treasury who contributed advice and analysis that supported the calculation of these results. 

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

If you have any questions about our approach or wish to discuss our modelling further, please don't hesitate to contact us at: info@archerfish.net

Disclaimer

Results updated 25 November 2016. Current estimates replace previous estimates.

While Archerfish endeavours to provide reliable and accurate analysis and believes the material it presents on this page is accurate, it will not be liable for any loss, damage or claim by any party acting on such information.

Electronic monitoring (radio frequency or global positioning systems)


Electronic monitoring (radio frequency or global positioning systems)


Electronic monitoring (radio frequency or global positioning systems)

INTERVENTION OVERVIEW

This intervention involves the use of a computer-based tracking device (either radio frequency or GPS) to electronically monitor the location of an offender. Offenders are generally required to remain at home except for approved activities such as work, school, or treatment. Electronic monitoring is used for probationers, parolees, or pre-trial defendants and can be used in lieu of, or in addition to, confinement. The use of electronic monitoring varies from lower to higher risk offenders.
Source: WSIPP

HEADLINE RECOMMENDATION

NOT RECOMMENDED MORE EVIDENCE REQUIRED RECOMMENDED INVESTMENT

RISK ASSESSMENT

THERE IS A 100 PER CENT CHANCE THAT AN INVESTMENT WILL YIELD A POSITIVE RETURN ON INVESTMENT

COSTS AND BENEFITS

TOTAL COST PER CASE TOTAL BENEFITS NET PRESENT VALUE BENEFIT COST RATIO RETURN ON INVESTMENT
($1893) $22493 $24385 $11.88 N/A
The figure above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant over time following the initial investment in the program. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.

The figure above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant over time following the initial investment in the program. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.

Correctional education (basic or post-secondary) in prison


Correctional education (basic or post-secondary) in prison


Correctional Education (basic or post-secondary) in prison

INTERVENTION OVERVIEW

This broad category of programs involves prison-based classes for offenders that might include: basic adult education, prepartion for high-school completion or post-secondary education.
Source: WSIPP

HEADLINE RECOMMENDATION

NOT RECOMMENDED MORE EVIDENCE REQUIRED RECOMMENDED INVESTMENT

RISK ASSESSMENT

THERE IS A 100 PER CENT CHANCE THAT AN INVESTMENT WILL YIELD A POSITIVE RETURN ON INVESTMENT

COSTS AND BENEFITS

TOTAL COST PER CASE TOTAL BENEFITS NET PRESENT VALUE BENEFIT COST RATIO RETURN ON INVESTMENT
($1149) $22539 $21390 $19.62 1929 per cent
The figure above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant over time following the initial investment in the program. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.

The figure above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant over time following the initial investment in the program. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.

Vocational education in prison


Vocational education in prison


Vocational education in prison

INTERVENTION OVERVIEW

Vocational education programs delivered in prison involve instruction for a specific trade, occupation, or vocation such as welding, auto repair, building maintenance, and graphic arts. The primary goal of vocational education is to help offenders develop marketable job skills upon release to the community.
Source: WSIPP

HEADLINE RECOMMENDATION

NOT RECOMMENDED MORE EVIDENCE REQUIRED RECOMMENDED INVESTMENT

RISK ASSESSMENT

THERE IS A 100 PER CENT CHANCE THAT AN INVESTMENT WILL YIELD A POSITIVE RETURN ON INVESTMENT

COSTS AND BENEFITS

TOTAL COST PER CASE TOTAL BENEFITS NET PRESENT VALUE BENEFIT COST RATIO RETURN ON INVESTMENT
($2793) $21005 $18212 $7.52 74 per cent
The figure above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant over time following the initial investment in the program. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.

The figure above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant over time following the initial investment in the program. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.

Outpatient/non-intensive drug treatment (incarceration)


Outpatient/non-intensive drug treatment (incarceration)


Outpatient/non-intensive drug treatment (incarceration)

INTERVENTION OVERVIEW

This broad category includes less intensive treatment modalities delivered during incarceration. These treatments were generally less intensive outpatient, group counseling, drug education, and relapse prevention.
Source: WSIPP

HEADLINE RECOMMENDATION

NOT RECOMMENDED MORE EVIDENCE REQUIRED RECOMMENDED INVESTMENT

RISK ASSESSMENT

THERE IS A 99 PER CENT CHANCE THAT AN INVESTMENT WILL YIELD A POSITIVE RETURN ON INVESTMENT

COSTS AND BENEFITS

TOTAL COST PER CASE TOTAL BENEFITS NET PRESENT VALUE BENEFIT COST RATIO RETURN ON INVESTMENT
($967) $18210 $17242 $18.83 1747 per cent
The figure above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant over time following the initial investment in the program. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.

The figure above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant over time following the initial investment in the program. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.

Inpatient/intensive outpatient drug treatment (incarceration)


Inpatient/intensive outpatient drug treatment (incarceration)


Inpatient/intensive outpatient drug treatment (incarceration)

INTERVENTION OVERVIEW

This grouping of programs includes inpatient or intensive outpatient treatment delivered during incarceration.
Source: WSIPP

HEADLINE RECOMMENDATION

NOT RECOMMENDED MORE EVIDENCE REQUIRED RECOMMENDED INVESTMENT

RISK ASSESSMENT

THERE IS A 100 PER CENT CHANCE THAT AN INVESTMENT WILL YIELD A POSITIVE RETURN ON INVESTMENT

COSTS AND BENEFITS

TOTAL COST PER CASE TOTAL BENEFITS NET PRESENT VALUE BENEFIT COST RATIO RETURN ON INVESTMENT
($1991) $17999 $16008 $9.04 135 per cent
The figure above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant over time following the initial investment in the program. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.

The figure above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant over time following the initial investment in the program. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.

Cognitive behavioral treatment (for high and moderate risk offenders)


Cognitive behavioral treatment (for high and moderate risk offenders)


Cognitive behavioural treatment (for high and moderate risk offenders)

INTERVENTION OVERVIEW

Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) emphasises individual accountability and teaches offenders that cognitive deficits, distortions, and flawed thinking processes cause criminal behavior. For this broad grouping of studies, CBT was delivered to adults in either an institutional or community setting and included a variety of “brand name” programs: Moral Reconation Therapy, Reasoning and Rehabilitation, and Thinking 4 a Change.
Source: WSIPP

HEADLINE RECOMMENDATION

NOT RECOMMENDED MORE EVIDENCE REQUIRED RECOMMENDED INVESTMENT

RISK ASSESSMENT

THERE IS A 99 PER CENT CHANCE THAT AN INVESTMENT WILL YIELD A POSITIVE RETURN ON INVESTMENT

COSTS AND BENEFITS

TOTAL COST PER CASE TOTAL BENEFITS NET PRESENT VALUE BENEFIT COST RATIO RETURN ON INVESTMENT
($709) $10,051 $9343 $14.18 656 per cent
The figure above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant over time following the initial investment in the program. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.

The figure above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant over time following the initial investment in the program. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.

Risk Need & Responsivity supervision (for high and moderate risk offenders)


Risk Need & Responsivity supervision (for high and moderate risk offenders)


Risk Need & Responsivity supervision (for high and moderate risk offenders)

INTERVENTION OVERVIEW

For this broad grouping of programs, supervision of adult offenders utilising “Risk Need Responsivity” (RNR) principles were included in this analysis. The risk principle pertains to interventions commensurate with an offender’s risk for re-offense. The need principle targets offender’s criminogenic needs such as anti-social attitudes or substance abuse. The responsivity principle refers to interventions geared toward the offender’s individual abilities and motivation level. Supervision using RNR principles focuses on high to moderate risk offenders and interventions are either cognitive behavioral or social learning techniques. The officer uses motivational interviewing to engage the offender and supervision is based on a behavioral or contingency management style.
Source: WSIPP

HEADLINE RECOMMENDATION

NOT RECOMMENDED MORE EVIDENCE REQUIRED RECOMMENDED INVESTMENT

RISK ASSESSMENT

THERE IS A 99 PER CENT CHANCE THAT AN INVESTMENT WILL YIELD A POSITIVE RETURN ON INVESTMENT

COSTS AND BENEFITS

TOTAL COST PER CASE TOTAL BENEFITS NET PRESENT VALUE BENEFIT COST RATIO RETURN ON INVESTMENT
($8120) $17109 $8989 $2.11 18 per cent
The figure above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant over time following the initial investment in the program. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.

The figure above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant over time following the initial investment in the program. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.

Therapeutic communities for offenders with co-occuring disorders


Therapeutic communities for offenders with co-occuring disorders


Therapeutic communities for offenders with co-occuring disorders

INTERVENTION OVERVIEW

Therapeutic communities are the most intensive form of substance abuse treatment. This grouping includes only those therapeutic communities for offenders with co-occurring substance use and mental disorders. These residential living units are highly structured using a hierarchical model among peers within the community. Participants gain responsibility as they progress through the stages of treatment. Depending on the level of dependency and the program, therapeutic communities can range from 3 to 12 months in length.
Source: WSIPP

HEADLINE RECOMMENDATION

NOT RECOMMENDED MORE EVIDENCE REQUIRED RECOMMENDED INVESTMENT

RISK ASSESSMENT

THERE IS A 98 PER CENT CHANCE THAT AN INVESTMENT WILL YIELD A POSITIVE RETURN ON INVESTMENT

COSTS AND BENEFITS

TOTAL COST PER CASE TOTAL BENEFITS NET PRESENT VALUE BENEFIT COST RATIO RETURN ON INVESTMENT
($5959) $26667 $20707 $4.48 42 per cent
The figure above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant over time following the initial investment in the program. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.

The figure above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant over time following the initial investment in the program. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.

Drug Offender Sentencing Alternative (for drug offenders)


Drug Offender Sentencing Alternative (for drug offenders)


Drug Offender Sentencing Alternative (for drug offenders)

INTERVENTION OVERVIEW

Drug offender sentencing alternative is a program developed in Washington State that allows certain offenders to receive reduced prison terms in exchange for completing chemical dependency treatment while incarcerated. WSIPP research indicates that it is effective and significantly lowers recidivism rates for drug offenders.
Source: WSIPP

HEADLINE RECOMMENDATION

NOT RECOMMENDED MORE EVIDENCE REQUIRED RECOMMENDED INVESTMENT

RISK ASSESSMENT

THERE IS A 98 PER CENT CHANCE THAT AN INVESTMENT WILL YIELD A POSITIVE RETURN ON INVESTMENT

COSTS AND BENEFITS

TOTAL COST PER CASE TOTAL BENEFITS NET PRESENT VALUE BENEFIT COST RATIO RETURN ON INVESTMENT
($3183) $22784 $19601 $7.16 88 per cent
The figure above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant over time following the initial investment in the program. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.

The figure above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant over time following the initial investment in the program. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.

Mental health courts


Mental health courts


Mental health courts

INTERVENTION OVERVIEW

Mental health courts divert offenders with mental health issues from incarceration to community-based treatment. These courts utilise mental health assessments, individualised treatment plans, and judicial monitoring to address the mental health needs of offenders and public safety concerns.
Source: WSIPP

HEADLINE RECOMMENDATION

NOT RECOMMENDED MORE EVIDENCE REQUIRED RECOMMENDED INVESTMENT

RISK ASSESSMENT

THERE IS A 98 PER CENT CHANCE THAT AN INVESTMENT WILL YIELD A POSITIVE RETURN ON INVESTMENT

COSTS AND BENEFITS

TOTAL COST PER CASE TOTAL BENEFITS NET PRESENT VALUE BENEFIT COST RATIO RETURN ON INVESTMENT
($5732) $18962 $13229 $3.31 29 per cent
The figure above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant over time following the initial investment in the program. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.

The figure above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant over time following the initial investment in the program. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.

Employment training/job assistance in the community


Employment training/job assistance in the community


Employment training/job assistance in the community

INTERVENTION OVERVIEW

Employment and job training programs teach job preparedness and skills that are necessary for the workplace, such as effective job searches, applications, and resumes. Some programs may specifically address barriers to employment for convicted offenders.
Source: WSIPP

HEADLINE RECOMMENDATION

NOT RECOMMENDED MORE EVIDENCE REQUIRED RECOMMENDED INVESTMENT

RISK ASSESSMENT

THERE IS A 98 PER CENT CHANCE THAT AN INVESTMENT WILL YIELD A POSITIVE RETURN ON INVESTMENT

COSTS AND BENEFITS

TOTAL COST PER CASE TOTAL BENEFITS NET PRESENT VALUE BENEFIT COST RATIO RETURN ON INVESTMENT
($235) $5758 $5523 $24.50 1129 per cent
The figure above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant over time following the initial investment in the program. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.

The figure above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant over time following the initial investment in the program. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.

Therapeutic communities for chemically dependent offenders (community)


Therapeutic communities for chemically dependent offenders (community)


Therapeutic communities for chemically dependent offenders (community)

INTERVENTION OVERVIEW

Therapeutic communities are the most intensive form of substance abuse treatment. These residential living units are highly structured using a hierarchical model among peers within the community. Offenders gain responsibility as they progress through the stages of treatment. Depending on the level of dependency and the program, therapeutic communities can range in length from 6 to 18 months.
Source: WSIPP

HEADLINE RECOMMENDATION

NOT RECOMMENDED MORE EVIDENCE REQUIRED RECOMMENDED INVESTMENT

RISK ASSESSMENT

THERE IS A 95 PER CENT CHANCE THAT AN INVESTMENT WILL YIELD A POSITIVE RETURN ON INVESTMENT

COSTS AND BENEFITS

TOTAL COST PER CASE TOTAL BENEFITS NET PRESENT VALUE BENEFIT COST RATIO RETURN ON INVESTMENT
($4058) $10687 $6629 $2.63 24 per cent
The figure above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant over time following the initial investment in the program. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.

The figure above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant over time following the initial investment in the program. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.

Correctional industries in prison


Correctional industries in prison


Correctional industries in prison

INTERVENTION OVERVIEW

Correctional industries are prison jobs where offenders earn a wage for their work. In this broad grouping of programs, industries can include private sector, non-profit, or institutional support jobs.
Source: WSIPP

HEADLINE RECOMMENDATION

NOT RECOMMENDED MORE EVIDENCE REQUIRED RECOMMENDED INVESTMENT

RISK ASSESSMENT

THERE IS A 95 PER CENT CHANCE THAT AN INVESTMENT WILL YIELD A POSITIVE RETURN ON INVESTMENT

COSTS AND BENEFITS

TOTAL COST PER CASE TOTAL BENEFITS NET PRESENT VALUE BENEFIT COST RATIO RETURN ON INVESTMENT
($2475) $6545 $4070 $2.64 22 per cent
The figure above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant over time following the initial investment in the program. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.

The figure above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant over time following the initial investment in the program. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.

Work release


Work release


Work release

INTERVENTION OVERVIEW

Work release programs are a form of partial confinement that enables certain offenders to serve all or a portion of their prison/jail sentence in a residential facility while employed in the community.
Source: WSIPP

HEADLINE RECOMMENDATION

NOT RECOMMENDED MORE EVIDENCE REQUIRED RECOMMENDED INVESTMENT

RISK ASSESSMENT

THERE IS A 94 PER CENT CHANCE THAT AN INVESTMENT WILL YIELD A POSITIVE RETURN ON INVESTMENT

COSTS AND BENEFITS

TOTAL COST PER CASE TOTAL BENEFITS NET PRESENT VALUE BENEFIT COST RATIO RETURN ON INVESTMENT
($1269) $7312 $6044 $5.76 N/A
The figure above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant over time following the initial investment in the program. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.

The figure above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant over time following the initial investment in the program. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.

Case management: swift & certain/graduated sanctions for substance abusing offenders


Case management: swift & certain/graduated sanctions for substance abusing offenders


Case management: swift & certain/graduated sanctions for substance abusing offenders

INTERVENTION OVERVIEW

“Swift and certain sanctions” is a strategy of supervision for substance-abusing offenders who violate the terms of supervision. Most of the studies included in this category also describe the use of sanctions that increase in severity—with continued violations.
Source: WSIPP

HEADLINE RECOMMENDATION

NOT RECOMMENDED MORE EVIDENCE REQUIRED RECOMMENDED INVESTMENT

RISK ASSESSMENT

THERE IS A 90 PER CENT CHANCE THAT AN INVESTMENT WILL YIELD A POSITIVE RETURN ON INVESTMENT

COSTS AND BENEFITS

TOTAL COST PER CASE TOTAL BENEFITS NET PRESENT VALUE BENEFIT COST RATIO RETURN ON INVESTMENT
($8171) $17749 $9578 $2.17 19 per cent
The figure above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant over time following the initial investment in the program. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.

The figure above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant over time following the initial investment in the program. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.

Outpatient/non-intensive drug treatment (community)


Outpatient/non-intensive drug treatment (community)


Outpatient/non-intensive drug treatment (community)

INTERVENTION OVERVIEW

This broad category includes less intensive treatment modalities delivered in the community. These treatments were generally less intensive outpatient, group counseling, drug education, and relapse prevention.
Source: WSIPP

HEADLINE RECOMMENDATION

NOT RECOMMENDED MORE EVIDENCE REQUIRED RECOMMENDED INVESTMENT

RISK ASSESSMENT

THERE IS A 90 PER CENT CHANCE THAT AN INVESTMENT WILL YIELD A POSITIVE RETURN ON INVESTMENT

COSTS AND BENEFITS

TOTAL COST PER CASE TOTAL BENEFITS NET PRESENT VALUE BENEFIT COST RATIO RETURN ON INVESTMENT
($969) $6131 $5161 $6.33 108 per cent
The figure above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant over time following the initial investment in the program. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.

The figure above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant over time following the initial investment in the program. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.

Sex Offender treatment in the community


Sex Offender treatment in the community


Sex Offender treatment in the community

INTERVENTION OVERVIEW

The studies of sex offender treatment in the community include broad therapeutic components such as cognitive behavioural treatment, individual or group counseling, psychotherapy, behavioural therapy and aversion therapy. Supervision is a key aspect of the treatment in these studies.
Source: WSIPP

HEADLINE RECOMMENDATION

NOT RECOMMENDED MORE EVIDENCE REQUIRED RECOMMENDED INVESTMENT

RISK ASSESSMENT

THERE IS A 82 PER CENT CHANCE THAT AN INVESTMENT WILL YIELD A POSITIVE RETURN ON INVESTMENT

COSTS AND BENEFITS

TOTAL COST PER CASE TOTAL BENEFITS NET PRESENT VALUE BENEFIT COST RATIO RETURN ON INVESTMENT
($2693) $10396 $7703 $3.86 38 per cent
The figure above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant over time following the initial investment in the program. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.

The figure above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant over time following the initial investment in the program. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.

Therapeutic communities for chemically dependent offenders (incarceration)


Therapeutic communities for chemically dependent offenders (incarceration)


Therapeutic communities for chemically dependent offenders (incarceration)

INTERVENTION OVERVIEW

Therapeutic communities are the most intensive form of substance abuse treatment. These residential living units are highly structured using a hierarchical model among peers within the community. Offenders gain responsibility as they progress through the stages of treatment. Depending on the level of dependency and the program, therapeutic communities can range in length from 6 to 18 months. These particular programs occur in a prison context.
Source: WSIPP

HEADLINE RECOMMENDATION

NOT RECOMMENDED MORE EVIDENCE REQUIRED RECOMMENDED INVESTMENT

RISK ASSESSMENT

THERE IS A 82 PER CENT CHANCE THAT AN INVESTMENT WILL YIELD A POSITIVE RETURN ON INVESTMENT

COSTS AND BENEFITS

TOTAL COST PER CASE TOTAL BENEFITS NET PRESENT VALUE BENEFIT COST RATIO RETURN ON INVESTMENT
($7178) $10158 $2980 $1.42 11 per cent
The figure above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant over time following the initial investment in the program. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.

The figure above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant over time following the initial investment in the program. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.

Inpatient/intensive outpatient drug treatment (community)


Inpatient/intensive outpatient drug treatment (community)


Inpatient/intensive outpatient drug treatment (community)

INTERVENTION OVERVIEW

This grouping of programs includes inpatient or intensive outpatient treatment delivered to offenders who are supervised in the community.
Source: WSIPP

HEADLINE RECOMMENDATION

NOT RECOMMENDED MORE EVIDENCE REQUIRED RECOMMENDED INVESTMENT

RISK ASSESSMENT

THERE IS A 73 PER CENT CHANCE THAT AN INVESTMENT WILL YIELD A POSITIVE RETURN ON INVESTMENT

COSTS AND BENEFITS

TOTAL COST PER CASE TOTAL BENEFITS NET PRESENT VALUE BENEFIT COST RATIO RETURN ON INVESTMENT
($1558) $3462 $1904 $2.22 26 per cent
The figure above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant over time following the initial investment in the program. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.

The figure above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant over time following the initial investment in the program. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.

Drug Offender Sentencing Alternative (for property offenders)


Drug Offender Sentencing Alternative (for property offenders)


Drug Offender Sentencing Alternative (for property offenders)

INTERVENTION OVERVIEW

Drug offender sentencing alternative is a program developed in Washington State that allows certain offenders to receive reduced prison terms in exchange for completing chemical dependency treatment while incarcerated. WSIPP research indicates that it does not have a statistically significant effect on recidivism rates of property offenders.
Source: WSIPP

HEADLINE RECOMMENDATION

NOT RECOMMENDED MORE EVIDENCE REQUIRED RECOMMENDED INVESTMENT

RISK ASSESSMENT

THERE IS A 67 PER CENT CHANCE THAT AN INVESTMENT WILL YIELD A POSITIVE RETURN ON INVESTMENT

COSTS AND BENEFITS

TOTAL COST PER CASE TOTAL BENEFITS NET PRESENT VALUE BENEFIT COST RATIO RETURN ON INVESTMENT
($3178) $11098 $7920 $3.49 70 per cent
The figure above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant over time following the initial investment in the program. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.

The figure above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant over time following the initial investment in the program. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.

Sex Offender treatment during incarceration


Sex Offender treatment during incarceration


Sex Offender treatment during incarceration

INTERVENTION OVERVIEW

Sex offender treatment for offenders in confinement is typically delivered in a separate therapeutic environment. Therapeutic components for this broad group of studies included cognitive behavioral treatment, individual and group counseling, psychotherapy, behavioral therapy, and aversion therapy.
Source: WSIPP

HEADLINE RECOMMENDATION

NOT RECOMMENDED MORE EVIDENCE REQUIRED RECOMMENDED INVESTMENT

RISK ASSESSMENT

THERE IS A 44 PER CENT CHANCE THAT AN INVESTMENT WILL YIELD A POSITIVE RETURN ON INVESTMENT

COSTS AND BENEFITS

TOTAL COST PER CASE TOTAL BENEFITS NET PRESENT VALUE BENEFIT COST RATIO RETURN ON INVESTMENT
($8320) $7494 ($826) $0.90 5 per cent
The figure above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant over time following the initial investment in the program. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.

The figure above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant over time following the initial investment in the program. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.

Offender Re-entry Community Safety Program (dangerously mentally ill offenders)


Offender Re-entry Community Safety Program (dangerously mentally ill offenders)


Offender Re-entry Community Safety Program (dangerously mentally ill offenders)

INTERVENTION OVERVIEW

This program was developed in Washington State it involves the identification of mentally ill prisoners who pose a threat to public safety and provides them opportunities to receive mental health treatment and other services up to five years after their release from prison.
Source: WSIPP

HEADLINE RECOMMENDATION

NOT RECOMMENDED MORE EVIDENCE REQUIRED RECOMMENDED INVESTMENT

RISK ASSESSMENT

THERE IS A 44 PER CENT CHANCE THAT AN INVESTMENT WILL YIELD A POSITIVE RETURN ON INVESTMENT

COSTS AND BENEFITS

TOTAL COST PER CASE TOTAL BENEFITS NET PRESENT VALUE BENEFIT COST RATIO RETURN ON INVESTMENT
($56286) $52729 ($3557) $0.94 6 per cent
The figure above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant over time following the initial investment in the program. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.

The figure above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant over time following the initial investment in the program. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.

Case management: not swift and certain for substance abusing offenders


Case management: not swift and certain for substance abusing offenders


Case management: not swift and certain for substance abusing offenders

INTERVENTION OVERVIEW

This broad category includes studies using a case management approach to offender supervision and transition from incarceration. A variety of case management models (e.g., brokerage or intensive) are included within this category. The primary goals of case management is to improve collaboration between correctional and treatment staff and to increase participation in substance abuse treatment. This category exclude studies that are based on the "swift and certain" approach.
Source: WSIPP

HEADLINE RECOMMENDATION

NOT RECOMMENDED MORE EVIDENCE REQUIRED RECOMMENDED INVESTMENT

RISK ASSESSMENT

THERE IS A 24 PER CENT CHANCE THAT AN INVESTMENT WILL YIELD A POSITIVE RETURN ON INVESTMENT

COSTS AND BENEFITS

TOTAL COST PER CASE TOTAL BENEFITS NET PRESENT VALUE BENEFIT COST RATIO RETURN ON INVESTMENT
($8178) $3369 ($4809) $0.41 1 per cent
The figure above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant over time following the initial investment in the program. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.

The figure above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant over time following the initial investment in the program. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.

Domestic violence perpetrator treatment


Domestic violence perpetrator treatment


Domestic violence perpetrator treatment

INTERVENTION OVERVIEW

Treatment programs for domestic violence offenders most frequently involve an educational component focusing on the historical oppression of women and emphasising alternatives to violence. Treatment is commonly mandated by the court and paid for by the offender.
Source: WSIPP

HEADLINE RECOMMENDATION

NOT RECOMMENDED MORE EVIDENCE REQUIRED RECOMMENDED INVESTMENT

RISK ASSESSMENT

THERE IS A 17 PER CENT CHANCE THAT AN INVESTMENT WILL YIELD A POSITIVE RETURN ON INVESTMENT

COSTS AND BENEFITS

TOTAL COST PER CASE TOTAL BENEFITS NET PRESENT VALUE BENEFIT COST RATIO RETURN ON INVESTMENT
($2353) ($6146) $8449 ($2.61) N/A
The figure above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant over time following the initial investment in the program. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.

The figure above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant over time following the initial investment in the program. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.

Intensive supervision (surveillance & treatment)


Intensive supervision (surveillance & treatment)


Intensive supervision (surveillance & treatment)

INTERVENTION OVERVIEW

In this broad grouping of programs, intensive supervision probation/parole (ISP) emphasises a higher degree of surveillance than traditional supervision in the community. ISP could be delivered in lieu of incarceration, as a conditional release from incarceration in the form of parole, or as a probation sentence. Conditions of supervision vary across the studies, but some characteristics include urine testing, increased face-to-face or collateral contacts, or required participation in treatment.
Source: WSIPP

HEADLINE RECOMMENDATION

NOT RECOMMENDED MORE EVIDENCE REQUIRED RECOMMENDED INVESTMENT

RISK ASSESSMENT

THERE IS A 16 PER CENT CHANCE THAT AN INVESTMENT WILL YIELD A POSITIVE RETURN ON INVESTMENT

COSTS AND BENEFITS

TOTAL COST PER CASE TOTAL BENEFITS NET PRESENT VALUE BENEFIT COST RATIO RETURN ON INVESTMENT
($15660) $10112 ($5548) $0.65 2 per cent
The figure above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant over time following the initial investment in the program. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.

The figure above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant over time following the initial investment in the program. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.

Intensive supervision (surveillance only)


Intensive supervision (surveillance only)


Intensive supervision (surveillance only)

INTERVENTION OVERVIEW

In this broad grouping of programs, intensive supervision probation/parole (ISP) emphasises a higher degree of surveillance than traditional supervision in the community. ISP could be delivered in lieu of incarceration, as a conditional release from incarceration in the form of parole, or as a probation sentence. Conditions of supervision vary across the studies, but some characteristics include urine testing, increased face-to-face or collateral contacts, or required participation in treatment.
Source: WSIPP

HEADLINE RECOMMENDATION

NOT RECOMMENDED MORE EVIDENCE REQUIRED RECOMMENDED INVESTMENT

RISK ASSESSMENT

THERE IS A 1 PER CENT CHANCE THAT AN INVESTMENT WILL YIELD A POSITIVE RETURN ON INVESTMENT

COSTS AND BENEFITS

TOTAL COST PER CASE TOTAL BENEFITS NET PRESENT VALUE BENEFIT COST RATIO RETURN ON INVESTMENT
($8219) ($3327) ($11546) ($0.40) (8 per cent)
The figure above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant over time following the initial investment in the program. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.

The figure above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant over time following the initial investment in the program. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.

Drug courts


Drug courts


Drug courts

INTERVENTION OVERVIEW

Drug courts use comprehensive supervision, drug testing, treatment services, and immediate sanctions and incentives in an attempt to modify the criminal behavior of certain drug-involved defendants. The way in which each drug court operates is unique, however they all share the primary goals of reducing both criminal recidivism and substance abuse among participants.
Source: WSIPP

HEADLINE RECOMMENDATION

NOT RECOMMENDED MORE EVIDENCE REQUIRED RECOMMENDED INVESTMENT

RISK ASSESSMENT

THERE IS A 0 PER CENT CHANCE THAT AN INVESTMENT WILL YIELD A POSITIVE RETURN ON INVESTMENT

COSTS AND BENEFITS

TOTAL COST PER CASE TOTAL BENEFITS NET PRESENT VALUE BENEFIT COST RATIO RETURN ON INVESTMENT
($18762) $1320 ($17441) $0.07 (6 per cent)
The figure above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant over time following the initial investment in the program. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.

The figure above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant over time following the initial investment in the program. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.